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Research Method in Education (8604) important Points and Headings

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Research Method in Education (8604) important Points and Headings

Concept of Research in Education Method : It is intellectual activity brings new knowledge .

7 Elements in Scientific Process:(1) Purposeful observation,(2) Analysis (3) Selective Recall (4) Hypothesis (5) verification by inference and experiment, (6) reasoning by (a) Method of residues (b) Method of Concomitant (c) Method of Residues (d) Method of disagreement (e) Joint method of agreement and disagreement (7) Judgement

it help sone cannotaion of research that includes

Research is simple systematic (2) Discovery of truth (3) systematic(4) point of view (5) kind f human behavior (6) scientific research (7) careful inquiry (8) manipulation of things (9) development of science (10) developing process

Characteristics of Research : MOVIE M : Mathematics Precision (2) Stands for objectivity (3) verifiable (4) impartiality (5)Expertness . Tuck mam has described research as systematic,logical,empirical,reductive,replicate,.

Main Characteristics of Scientific research : purpose,objective,organize data ,systematic,collection of facts,discoveries of scientific generalization,expresses result .

Specific Characteristics of Education Research : Study of complex relationship ,method of description,better things , no as exact physical things ,directly problem of school, common sense ,need of man ,inexpensive material,subjectivity,interdependence of cause and effects.

Need of Research : Rapid expansion of education , Technological changes,New Demands on education , Interdisciplinary Approach , Knowledge Explosion, Education and Productivity , Scarves Resources and Optimum Development , Spirit of research needed , Fixed Track .

Six Major Responsibility of Research : valuable background data , analytical studies,possibility of testing ,plane for result ,diagnose study ,awareness .

4 Method of Knowing : Tenacity ,Fixing belief,priory method,method of science

Steps in Scientific Method: A felt difficulty , Location and domain difficulty ,Hypothesis ,Reasoning ,Action

What is Research ?

solution of problem , Development of generalization , observable experience , curate observation ,new data collection , Require Expertise, Objective and Logical , Unsolved Problems, patient,careful recorded, require courage,

Research in Education : individual { pupil,teacher,researcher, administrator, }

Organization : Class rooms, school,society, Action Research Self dissatisfaction,confidence,Specify dissatisfaction,Defines Problems,Diagnosis,Promising practice,Hypothesis,action Hypothesis .

Basic Research : Pure Research

Characteristics of Basic Research :Develop education theories ,require expert tracing,wide use of method ,highly specific hypothesis,careful attention,complex analysis of data , involvement of research reports .

Applied Research : function research ,like medicine , involves classrooms teacher and research specialist,publication of facts ,

Action Research : participant attempts to study ,self dissatisfaction,identification of problems,defining problems,problems analysis ,action hypothesis ,uses of tools ,action programmer,Evaluation .

Advantage of Action Research : improves,facts and evidence,experiment,decision making,facts and evidence experimental,new interest better role, world of research instructional procedures,part of teacher ,

Function : technique of teaching,work of teacher ,develop experience,new interest

Sources of Problems : classrooms,staff meeting ,chairman department,

Drawback : poor quality,questionable ,  enough time

,Action Research Design : identification of problem area, selection of problem, problem analysis, action hypothesis, the experiment ,tools to be used, action program, evaluation

Historical Research :

use of historical sources and techniques in filed of education .

sound scholarship , educational worker,past experience,

Characteristics : Reports of observation,subjective,verbalized,future course of events Steps : collection of data , internal and external criticism ,presentation of facts. Guideline :primary source used,personal bias shroud not ,paper recolonization,significant facts,facts should be synthesized,care taken

Descriptive Research : called normative ,survey research

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Characteristics : whole Population,date collection , provides information,qualitative surveys,description may be verbal or mathematical .

Stages in Final Stage : Statement of general objectives,specific objectives,determination of size,design sample,preparation of questionnaire,determining interviews,Making analysis plans,Machine Tabulation,Analyzing,Reports

Research Method in Education (8604) important Points and Headings


Experimental Research ; (1)Control Randomization and Replication (Physical ,Selective Controls,Statisical) (2) Randomization is difficult to control ,(3)Replication

Major Steps : Planning the Experiment , Conducting Experiment ,Reporting the result .Classification of Experimental Research  : Single Design ,Parallel Design ,Rotational Group Experimentation

Five Types of Experiment: Trial and error experiment , Controlled Observation, Natural Experiment , Ex post and fact experiment ,Laboratory experiment

Advantage of Experiment Research : establish direction of causality , low cost, conveniences, adjust ability, Replication, multi variable causation ,

Disadvantage : Lack of reality, unrepresentative samples, expensive, hazardous outcomes

Limitation : suffer from score of limitation, extraneous variable, Concept of causation , experimental controls,maturation, testing, unsuitable instruments, differential sections, contamination.

Historical Research : what is history ,Scope , Formulation of problems,Historical Sources ( Primary and secondary) Criticism ( External and internal ) ,examples,

Variables ? Dependent, intervening Extraneous

Techniques of Controlling Extraneous Variable : Removing variables, Randomization, Matching cases,Balancing cases , Analysis of Co variance .

 Experimental Validity : internal validity , External validity ,

Descriptive Research : Steps :  examine situation, define problem , list assumptions, select appropriate subject, construct techniques, validity data gathering techniques, make determination and observation , describe analyse, and interpret . .

Survey Studies : types : school survey , public opinion survey , community survey ,documentary analysis, job analysis , follow-up studies

Forms of Questionnaire : Closed Form , open form , pictorial form ,scale items

Construction of Questionnaire :  Framing of question, ordering of questions , Designing the directions and format, Criteria of Question Writing : related to research problem, right clear,suggestive,informative, material ,

Steps for Better Response Through Questionnaire

Chose respondents carefully , courteous,natural info, follow up procedure

Types of interview :individual and group, structured or standardized interview, unstructured or standardized, Non Directive depth interview ,focused interview

.Methods of Recording Observation check list , rating scale, score card, scaled specimen,Classification of test > Achievement Test , Aptitude test , personality test (personality questionnaire,protective technique )

How to choose a test to use < steps in constructions of test , qualities of good test , standardization, reliability ,validity

Types of  Sampling : Non Probability sampling , probability sampling ,

Needs and importance of sampling : advantage : reduced cost , greater speed, greater scope,accuracy

Population : Sampled Population, targeted population . Types of Population  : homogeneous , heterogeneous.

Sample = sample without replacement ,sample with replacement , sampling frame,

Sample Designs = Random Sampling , stratified Raandom Sampling , Double Sampling ,Cluster sampling

Nature and Background of study : Statement of problems , reasons for making the study , review of related literature , further elaboration of problems,

Method of Study and Presentation of Data :Actual steps ,instruments, validity ,population, descriptive , summary of dotty .

Writing Report: Prepare detailed outline, adopt simple style . Use dictionary frequently , build strong paragraph . write clear sentence, follow accepted practice , revision of draft ,



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